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NCERT Class 8 Hindi Bharat ki Khoj Prashan Abhyas. NCERT book have been published by NCERT as per syllabus designed by CBSE which is followed in. NCERT Class 8 Hindi Bharat ki Khoj Chapter 7 Antim Daur Do. NCERT book have been published by NCERT as per syllabus designed by CBSE which is. Labels: भारत एक खोज, bharat ek khoj, bharat ek khoj online, discovery india, discovery of India, DiscoveryOfIndia, episodes of bharat ek khoj, Jawaharlal.
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How many times have they told us about fixing a timetable and setting a routine to complete all our studies on time? You might have lost count I'm sure. But let's stop for a minute and think. Why are they constantly nagging us about these things? There surely must be a reason behind it. And yes there Letter from CBSE. You never realise what you have until its gone. A chocolate pastry is a good example, but here we mean the joys of your schooling years.
While 18,27, of you who are taking the Xth Board exams will continue on your journey of discovery and exploration in school, for 12,87, of you who are taking the XIIth Board exams, there are higher institutions of learning awaiting your knock on their How to Memorize Faster. Many a times students face the most important hurdle in their lives, how to memorize faster?
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It simply Search form Search. Below thwm were the shudra, as labourers inferior to farmers and unskilled workers, Mythologically, Brahmins came from the mouth of Brahma, Kshatriyas from his arms, Vaishyas from his things and Shudras from his feet. Nehru points out that this was in keeping with the spirit of the time and kindred civilization like the Iranians had a four-fold division, though not petrified into castes and the Greeks were entirely dependent on mass slavery.
That these castes must have been in a fluid condition and rigidity came in only later, is illustrated from the epics. Probably, cast was neither Aryan nor Dravidian, but an attempt at the social organization of different race, rationalization of the facts as they existed at the time, opines Nehru.
It brought degradation afterwards, and is still a burden and a curse. Episode 5: Mahabharata Part 1 When the fiery Pandavani performer Teejan Bai from chattisgarh, holding aloft an Ektara and alternating verse with prose describes the dialogue between the Pandava King Pandu and Queen Kunti, she is receating familiar episodes from the Mahabharata.
His mother and other ladies told him stories from the epics, taking him every year to the popular open-air performances ehwre the Ramayana story was enaced as Ramlila and vast crowds to witness it. These narratives and shows represented the typical Indian method of catering for various audiences, from the highest intellectual to the simple unread and untaught villager.
Nehru opines that the Ramayana was an epic poem with a certain unity of treatment, while the Mahabharata was a vast and miscellaneous collection of ancient lore. Both must have taken shape in the pre-Buddhist period, though additions were no doubt made later.
The Mahabharata eventually acquired , shlokas verses! Teejan Bla takes forward the narrative by donning roles of Kunti and Madri, who are anticipating their five mighty sons. Gambling games were common in the past-Vedic times and the dramatic narrative describes the royal bout of dice, where the eldest Pandava prince yudhishtira plays against the devious Kauravas and loses. He forfeits his money, jewellery,kingdom, weapons and horses, and even four brothers and himself, pawning quite unjustly wife Draupadi.
The Pandavas are banished of the forest and, on return, Krishna acts as an earnest plenipotentiary to prevent war, but without success. The inevitable battle ensues, but since only the killing of relatives and friends is foreseen, Arjuna wonders what is the whole purpose. As Nehru observes, Arjuna is the symbol of the tortured spirit of man, which from age to age has been torn by conflicting obligations and moralities.
In the classic discourse of the Bhagavata Gita, we are taken step- by —step to higher and more impersonal regions of individual duty and social behavior; of the application of ethic to human life; and of the spiritual outlook that should govern all.
Essentially, the Gita deals with the whole human existence and is a call to action: to meet the obligations and duties of life, but always keeping in view the spiritual background and the larger purpose of the universe.
Inaction is condemned, and action must be in a spirit of detachment, not concerned with its results. Nehru views the message of the Gita not sectarin, but universal in its approach. The end of the Mahabharta war sees a battle royal between Bhima and Duryodhana as depicted graphically in the rare tragedy Urubhangam The Shattered Thigh by the classic Sanskrit poet playwright Bhasa.
Duryodhana bemoans his lot and regrets his past misdeeds. Visited by the parents and son Durjaya, duryodhana consoles them and urgs them to view Kunti and Dropti as there kith an kin. The battle scarred Ashwatthama the son of Guru Drona Turms of looking for a vanish glory in war without the accolade of victory, taunting Durodhana that Bhima has trust his pride and spirit , along with his thise, when he struck him with the mace and seized him by the hair, Ashwatthama vanishes into the night , weapons in hand to slay the Pandove Sons were sleeping.
The doomed destiney is excepted magnanimously by Krishna. The curtain also arrises on Bhishma, the Kaurav grate grandfather, wating on his battled, induced arrow —bed to breath his last and Youdhishtira seeking his valuable counsel for conducting governance time to come.
The veteran warrior delivers many gems and Nehru thought his special emphasis on social well fair was not worthy, since it was against the prevailing tenets of individual perfection.
Virtue is batter than immortality and life, true joy entails surfing a dig against avarice. Nehru consider the Ramayana, its written by Valmiki, as a unique epic poem and loved by the people.
He coated from the French historian Michelet extolling the Ramayana: there lies my grate poem, as vast as the Indian ocean, blessed, gilded, with the son, the book of divine harmony wherein is no dissonance.
A serene peace reigns there, and in the midst of conflict an infinite sweetness, a bound less fraternity. Which spreads over all leaving things, an ocean of love, of piti, of clemency. Soon the premonitions prove true with brother Lakshmana storming in and accusing Rama of his nonchalance, when there is a conspiracy going on against his coronation. Rama stands by the parental commitment and abdicates the throne in favour of brother Bharata. It is clear now, Rama is proceeding to the forest for 14 years and wife Sita and Brother Lakshamana have instead on joining hands.
Intrusting contrast is visible between unban Ayodhya and the thickly-wooded Dandakaranya, and the forest-dweller demons are perhaps non Aryans : then part of an Aryanaisation Process. Yet Sita argument is quite valid: what is the rational for Rama to take upon himself the risk of eradicating the forest dwellers who are disturbed by the Aryans : advancing to the forest with there occupations and ritul?
Convincing rama to go away and capture the Himalayan Swarana golden bear neaded for holding last rites of his departed father, he force fully and openly abducts Sita. Incidentally, the non-Aryans compised not only domens but also Vanaras Monkeys.
Rama poses as the representative of the Ayodhya king Bharat and inlist the support of Hanuman to explore lanka. A vivid Kathakali enactment depicts the burning of Lanka by Hanuman and Seraikela Chhau the fight between Rama and ravana, describing the fall of the Titan, Ravana.
The fallen Ravana is still conscious enough ignore a haughty Lakshmana, but when Rama sits at his feet, the dying demon slowly opens up with his hard-earned experience as Marg Darshan road-map to Rama Kindness, love and charity to other are quintessential qualities; performing good deeds is important; anger, vanity and hatred are tantamount to bad deeds and to be discarded.
Nehru observes that in all probability, this India was a collection of small agriculturally based states. There were many tribal republics, some of which covered large areas. Nehru notes that whatever the form of organization, the tradition of city or village autonomy was very strong, and even when an over lordship was acknowledged, there was no interference done the line with a prevalent primitive kind of democracy.
The above is illustrated in the working of the four principal kingdom in central and Northern India Kashi, Koshala, Panchala, and Magadha. The local autonomy is seeing as grately prized in the dramatic narrative , there is altercation when the traders liberty is severely interfered with cross border taxation by neighbouring kingdoms and royal councils take up consequent complaints.
What emerges is the essential dichotomy between the democratic consils of shakyas and the autocratic kingdoms of koshala. The floodgates open to koshalas control with the superior military force and all round devastation wrought in the shakya community.
Nehru point out that kingship, originally elective, become hereditary according to the rule of primogeniture. The king or leader was held presponsible if any thing went wrong. There was council of ministers or adviser and some kind of state or autonomous assembly.
Where there was a king, he was frirly autocratic, thru functioning with established conventions. The high priest had and important position in course as an adiser. Episode Acceptance and Nagation of Life Nehru finds in India tostreams of thoughts and action: the acceptance of life and the abstention from it developing side by side with the emphasis on the one or the other varing in different perioud.
Even when it discous the world as maya illusion , it will took the world as it is and tried to live its life and enjoy its manifold beauty, in the upannishad times, from around bc the ethics of individual perfection grew, with the dictum.
There is nothing hire then the person. There is a famous story of Nachiketa who journey to the land of the death and pleases Yamraj with his earnest quest for truth.
In the promises boon, the youth seeks the ultimate warty of what happens after death. Enunciating the suprime philosophy of life, Yamraj says that only body dies dies not the soul, which persists to eternity. Nehru refers to mens restless life, ever questioning why, in surch of what, dos the water run out and cannot stop its flow for a movement? And the super human confidence : O sun of refulgent glory. I am the same person as makes the what thou art from the strong current of materialism came the lokayata shastra folk- based tresties as reveld probdha Chandrodaya , an extant work derived from the atheist sage charavaka.
The seen is that of nihilism, where the materialists denounces the Vedas, priest craft and traditional beliefs, inveighing against all forms of magic and superstitions then we see the ajeevika sampradaya believrs in destiny who are dancing asserting that there is no other world, no heaven or heal , no soul separate from the body. Nehru asserts that both budhism and Jainism wer brake aways from the vadic religion.
Both lay emphasis on non violence and buildup organization of bhikshus celibate monks. Nehru feels that there was a certain relism and rationalism in there approach. Writing on the day of Bashakhi Purnima, when the Budha was both born and achieved parinirvna, dimes Nehru visualizes the prince Siddhartha noticing old age, disease and death for the first time and then the life — forsaking Sannyasin ascetic.
The colourfull odissi dancers in court cannot divert him and he leaves home at night in surch of truth. In teaching Nehru emphasized how the Buddha avoided extremes and adopted the doctrine of the Middle Way. Even the idea of nirvana enlightenment was far from mere nothing ness but a positive condition of life —affirmation. To graphic parables on the brigand Angulimala catch inner significance of Buddhism. Nehru points out how the images of the Buddha radiate sublime serenity and complete faith in human redemption.
Episode Chanakya and Chandragupta — Part-1 After the gradual spread of Buddhism in India, Nehru notes that there were process to bring about racial fusion and amalgamation of the petty states and republics to build up a united, centralized state into a powerful and highly developed empire.
They were chandragupta maurya, a little known ambitious youth and chanakya, his friend minister-counsellor, the Brahmin. Chandragupta accosts chanakya the building author of Artha shastra, on the Ganga-banks and gently persuades him to become his friend, philosopher and guide. Chanakya is misunderstood and insulted by the power full emperor Nanda supported by the prime minister Rakshasa of the Magadha kingdom. Exiled and enraged , both leave for Taxlia to meet the Greek Garrisons and eventually Alexander himself.
At nandas court, the lyrical chhau dance of Suvasini mesmerises the emperor who claims the daseuse to become his consort, against protestations of her counsellor father, Shakatara who is imprisoned. Suvasini makes a reluctant bride, but concedes only when she is infoned that the scheming Chanakya has freed hir father and taken him to join Chandragupta encourage.
Shakatara is strengthened with Sariputra, ganadhipati chief of republic , of autonomy of operations under the central kingdom. The scene ends with much bonhomie among the allies.
Episode Chanakya and chandragupta — Part The scene now opens with special entente with virochak, son of the deceased king Poras. For jointly rooling the kingdom with Chandragupta on an equally shared bases.
Emperor Nanda and quen Suvasini are caught totally unawares. A squirming Chandragupta accuses Chanakya to have a heart of stone. In a last ancounter with Suvasini, now a Bhlkshuni nun Chandragupta, Wile looking for patronage of the Buddhist songha organization , share his personal disillusionment with grand stand politics with her.
In a last act of diplomatic skullduggery Chanakya prevent raksha from feeling and instead, persuades him to utillse his emperls talent in the service of noe emperor Chandragupta his erstwhile carchenemy. As Nehru summarises like Machiavelli in Europe, Chanakya was bold and scheming proud and revengeful, never forget his purpose, availing himself of every device to delude and defeat the enemy.
He sad with the reins of the empire in his hands and looked upon the empror more as a beloved people then as a master. At the victorious movement, he induced Chandragupta to handover the insignia of his own hi office to the rival prime minister, rakshasa , whos intelegent and loyalty to his old cheaf nanda had impressed him gridy. So the story ends: not in the bitterness of defeat and humiliation, but in reconciliation and in laying the form and enduring foundation of a state.
The curtains is drawn when Chanakya demits office. Nehru describe chandragupta empire covering the hole of India except for South, from the erabion see to the Bay of Bengal and extending in the north upto Kabul. For the first time recorded history, a centralized State Rose in India, with its capital in patliputra while the state was an autocracy, there was a great deel of local autonomy in the town and village units, and elective eldors lookafter the local affairs.
This local autonomy was highly prized and hardly any king or emepror interfered with it. In a purly agriculture age, there was the thing like the control of the state.
China, Tibet, and even India , though it has left his doctrine,preserve the tradition of his reeatness… There is a discussion in the royal court of Bindusar about the wisdom of Ashoka continuing as a prince, as a viceroy in the north-western province of whichTaxila, the university centre, was the capital.
There is some confidential information on the incipient feud between the designed Yuvraj heir apparent Sushima and Ashoka related to their incumbency to throne after the imminent demise of the ailing king. There is an appeal for grant of land to build a Buddhistmonastery which finds ready support with ashoka, notwithstanding some Brahminical resistance.
There are complaints about multiple taxation incurred by the business community which Ashoka solves gaining their confidence. The sick Emperor Biudusar is worried about quelling the Taxila unrest and is keen to call Sushima to Pataliputra to make him the heir-apparent. Ashoka anticipates the royal mind and ignoring a command to proceedto Taxila, turns up in the capital. By another slight of hand, he declares him as Raj-Pratinidhi the royal representative even before Sushimagets a chance. The feud for succession now hots up and the bed-ridden emperor can do precious little.
The other princes, who could possibly prove recalcitrant, are also swiftly eliminated The way of Ashoka to his gloried destination is appreciably clear.
Episode Ashoka Part-ll Ashoka is now the Emperor and is relaxing with a vina recital in court. There is an interruption by the Buddhist emissaries from Ujjain on a tiding of gratitude for the nearly-completed monastery.
The old dream of uniting the whole of India under one supreme government fired Ashoka. On the news of skirmishes againt the business community by the small Kalinga-rulers and disruptions in trade, Ashoka mounted an all out attack on Kalinga on the east coast and, despite brave resistance by the independent people of Kalinga, his armis triumphed.
Ashoka creates public works for the people by digging wells, building roads and hospitals, and planting trees. He creates a unique communication system, by issuing numerous edicts carved rock and metal spread out all over India.
These edicts that are still with us, exhort the cause of eduction, show respect for all faiths, prohibit animal sacrifice and encourage abstention alcoholic.
Above all, he makes himself available at any hour and at any place to work for the commonwealth. Nehru records how his ambassadors went to Syria, Egypt,Macedonia, Cyrene and Epirus making an appeal to the mind and the heart. His messengers went to Central Asia also, beside Myanmar and Cambodia. Because of the growth of foreign contacts and missionary enterprises trade between India and other countries also grew. Episode The Sangam Period and Silappadikaram — Part-1 Nehru noted that in South India, for more than years after the Maurya Empire had shrunk and finally ceased to be, great states flourished.